Chesapeake oyster reefs, their importance, destruction, and guidelines for restoring them. Culturing oysters also provides a suitable substrate for oyster spat to attach. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes: Western Central Atlantic Fishing Area 31, Vol. Prog. > 10°C, Cold average temp. In: Oyster reef habitat restoration: a synopsis, and a synthesis of approaches [ed. Online. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Canad. Some oyster reefs are so large they are included on topographic maps. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the native Eastern oyster, the Pacific oyster is a Japanese transplant, brought to this country after the turn of the century to revitalize the West Coast oyster industry after its native Olympia species (Ostrea lurida) crashed. Diener RA, 1975. Scientific name i: Crassostrea virginica: Taxonomy navigation › Crassostrea. Barney W, 2000. Breuer JP, 1962. Effects of repeated shill damage on gametogenesis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Eastern Oyster. Mol. Mar. Hare MP; Avise JC, 1996. The Biological Bulletin, 186(2):221-240. tolerance for low dissolved oxygen and wide ranges in salinity and temperature) makes it resilient. New Brunswick, NJ 333-369. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico) - american oyster. U.S. by Schierwaker, B.\Streit, B.\Wagner, G. P.\DeSalle, R.]., Switzerland: Ed. Rept. Pub, 64(4):653. 105 pp. Aquaculture, Genetics, and Breeding Technology Center, Virginia Institute for Marine Science, College of William and Mary. Pinctada albina (Lamarck): breeding seasons and sexuality. : American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16 : Page(s): vii + 277 : Publisher: American Fisheries Society : Publication Place: Bethesda, Maryland, USA : ISBN/ISSN: 0-913235-47-4, 0097-0638 : Notes: Reference for: Annapolis, Maryland: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Varying protein levels in the diet of the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Berrigan ME; Candies T; Cirino J; Dugas R; Dyer C; Gray J; Herrington T; Keithly W; Leard R; Nelson JR; Hoose NVan, 1991. In: Lovatelli, ed. Study of oyster growth and population structure of the public reefs in East Bay, Galveston, and Trinity Bay. Quast WD; Johns MA; Pitts DEJr; Matlock GC; Clark JE, 1988. Online. Ecol. DGGE reveals additional population structure in American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations. SAFMC, 1998. GSMFC, 2004. Hoover CA; Gaffney PM, 2005. Eastern oyster larvae often attach themselves to the shells of adult oysters, where they will grow together to form large oyster reefs. Accessed 23 March 2005. Tidal range: 0.5 m (in restricted lagoons or upper estuaries) to 2.7 m (Gulf of St. Lawrence; Jenkins et al., 1997 in EOBRT, 2007). USA: University of Washington, 1-55. A modification of "Which Way to the Oyster Bar" an introduction to the oyster. DMR, 2005. NOAA, 2005. Online. MacKenzie CL; Wakida-Kusunoki AT, 1997. Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers, the State Unviersity of New Jersey. Oyster reefs. Fisheries Global Information System, FIGIS Species Fact Sheets, FAO-FIGIS. Bull, 114:57-70. Online. Baldwin BS; Newell RIE, 1995. It is not well known why oyster reefs are in decline, yet it is apparent that a combination of stressors could be in effect. The oyster fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States: A regional management plan. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C), Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. Elston RA, 1990. For example, a Canadian West coast oyster's scientific name is Crassostrea gigas where as a Canadian East coast oyster's (the best oysters!) Rep. N.J. Agric. Monographs, 69:251-275. I will give a quick update to. Number 24, March 1991. Accessed 11 May 2005. Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 128, 245, 460, 504, 521, 615, 621, 624, 633, 660, 763. Accessed 9 April 2005. by MacKenzie, C. L.\Burrell, V. G.\Rosenfield, A.\Hobart, W. L.]. Berrigan ME, 1988. Eastern oysters find homes in salty and/or brackish waters on the coastline. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, several oyster reefs were so big they posed navigational hazards to ships (Texas Parks and Wildlife, 2007). Accessed 10 March 2005. College Park, Maryland: Maryland Sea Grant College, University of Maryland, 335-370. Ecol. The molluscan fisheries of Chesapeake Bay. unpaginated. Ford SE; Figueras AJ; Haskin HH, 1990., GISD, 2005. Quick Facts. Accessed 10 April 2005. It was first cultivatedin Germany as a subsistence measure during World War Iand is now grown commercially around the world for food. Online. [NOAA Tech. History of oystering in the United States and Canada, featuring North America's greatest oyster estuaries. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Report NMFS, 15-44. Scaling and wavelet-based analysis of the long-term heart rate variability of Crassostrea virginica. Science, 74(1907):71-72. Langdon CJ; Newell RIE, 1996. FAO, 2005. Vol. by Luckenbach, M. W.\Mann, R.\Wesson, J. 6 in. Cunningham CW; Collins TM, 1994. Wells HW, 1961. History and status of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and other molluscan fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Debris and waste associated with human activities. Population genetics of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica along the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico. Oyster reefs. Eastern oysters have a moderately deep, elongated, gray-white to gray-brown, rough, spoon-shaped shell with rose-colored streaks. Mar. Veliger, 28:121-158. Food and Agriculture Organization. Sym, 22:438-454. VIMS document, 2005. Buroker NE, 1983. Biol. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Report of the Biologist for 1904. Burkenroad MD, 1931. CABI, Undated. Shellfish Assoc, 46:40-58. Summary of oyster farming experiments in South Carolina 1939-1940. The right or top shell is flat, while the left or bottom shell is cupped, with a purple muscle scar on the inside. The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries is responsible for managing and protecting Louisiana’s abundant natural resources. Marcet G, Jimenez F, Rangel C, Arriaga R, 1992. Mann R, 2000. Digestion and nutrition in larvae and adults. C. virginica occurs naturally in a great diversity of habitats along the western Atlantic Ocean from the Canadian Maritime Provinces to the Gulf of Mexico, Panama, and the Caribbean Islands (Carlton and Mann, 1996; Abbott, 1974; MacKenzie, 1997a; Jenkins et al., 1997; FAO, 1978 (in EOBRT, 2007)). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks : Journal/Book Name, Vol. An infected oyster will show stunted growth, lesions, mantle recession, unequal shell growth, brown rings on it's inside, and mortality rates of 60% or higher. Helm MM; Holland DL; Stephenson RR, 1973. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: how habitat structure influences individual performance. Crassostrea virginica. USGS, 2007. Prog. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Journal of Shellfish Research, 24(1):103-112. Maryland Sea Grant, 2005. Online. Evolution, 50(6):2305-2315. U.S. Accessed 1 June 2005. The history and present condition of fishery industries [ed. American oyster. Rep. NMFS CIRC-393.]. by MacKenzie, C. L.\Burrell, V. G.\Rosenfield, A.\Hobart, W. L.]. Fisheries and Ocean Canada, 2002. The role of oyster reefs as essential fish habitat: a review of current knowledge and some new perspectives. Online. Biol, 45:157-163. Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers. NMFS 127.]. MacDonald JH; Verrelli BC; Geyer LB, 1996. Trends in population levels of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin on public reefs in Galveston Bay, Texas. Summer 1997. Raw Deals. Online. Oyster Biology and Ecology. Assoc, 57:59-62. by MacKenzie, C. L.\Burrell, V. G.\Rosenfield, A.\Hobart, W. L.]. Balancing selection at allozyme loci in oysters: implications from nuclear RFLPs. Texas Parks and Wildlife, 2007. Scientific Name. In: Crassostrea virginica [ed. Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University. U.S. Department of Commerce, 63-86. Davis NW; Chanley PE, 1956. Accessed 10 April 2005. BMC Genomics, 8(157):(08 June 2007). The fecundity of the oyster. Dugas RJ; Joyce EA; Berrigan MA, 1997. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Accessed 27 April 2005. Juvenile oyster disease, JOD, Roseovarius oyster disease, ROD. Biological Bulletin, 160(1):80-88. Accessed 15 March 2005. Entry for eastern oyster genetics. NOAA, 2006. Preferred Scientific Name; Crassostrea virginica Preferred Common Name; eastern oyster Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Metazoa Phylum: Mollusca Class: Bivalvia Subclass: Pteriomorphia; Summary of Invasiveness Eastern oysters are found in estuaries as well as intertidal and subtidal zones where they are sessile. In: The History, Present condition, and Future of the Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe. Baldwin BS; Newell RIE, 1991. A genetic discontinuity and growth of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica with respect to tidal zonation and season. An ecological survey of the lower Laguna Madre of Texas, 1953-1959. Introduced species fact sheets: Crassostrea virginica. Milbury CA; Meritt DW; Newell RIE; Gaffney PM, 2004. During the time the oyster is growing, they are reproducing. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Elder N, 2007. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. It is smaller (maximum size about 51 cm or 2 in), round, and resides in more saline water than the eastern oyster. Epifanio CE, 1988. According to the Global Invasive Species Database, there are currently no invasive species listings recorded for C. virginica (GISD, 2005). MD Sea Grant Publication, 691-706. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasions, 2:7-22. Mollusc Diseases. Hofstetter RP, 1962., FAO, 2007. Summer 1997. unpaginated. American Seashells: The Marine Mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America. University of Hawaii, 2002. Accessed on 17 April 2005. Thompson RJ; Newell RIE; Kennedy VS; Mann R, 1996. Entry for eastern oyster. Ecological Monographs, 31(3):239-266. The Fauna of Oyster Beds with Special Reference to the Salinity Factor. Accessed 14 May 2005. Accessed on 17 April 2005. Hedges JI; Weliky K, 1989. Natl. by Kennedy, V. S.\Newell, R. I. E.\Eble, A. F.]. Online. Mar. In the past years, C. virginica has been over-harvested. The American oyster is an iconic species of the Chesapeake Bay and other coastal waters of eastern North America. SCORE, 2004. Accessed 25 April 2005. Smith RO, 1949. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need., Reddy NA; Menon NR, 1979. Trends in population levels of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin on public reefs in Galveston Bay, Texas. Bahr LM, 1967. Abbott RT, 1974. The main distinction is that crested oysters have teeth on the upper interior lateral margins (absent in eastern … Hardesty S, 2001. J. Shellfish Res, 11:49-57. Although oysters are capable of surviving in a wide range of habitat conditions, the preferred habitat (general range) conditions in areas where C. virginica are common, based largely on Shumway (1996) and Hargis and Haven (1999) and others noted (EOBRT, 2007), are considered to be: Depth: 0.6-2.0 m (range 0-11 m) in Canadian waters (Jenkins et al., 1997 in EOBRT, 2007); mostly between 0.6-5.0 m in mid-Atlantic States waters (MacKenzie, 1996 as in EOBRT, 2007) although oysters commonly inter-tidally south of Maryland (Burrell, 1997 in EOBRT, 2007) and in deeper waters in some areas, e.g., to 8 m in Chesapeake Bay (MacKenzie, 1997a in EOBRT, 2007); 0.0-4.0 m in Gulf of Mexico (MacKenzie and Wakida-Kusunoki, 1997; Dugas et al., 1997 (all in EOBRT, 2007)). Accessed 25 April 2005. Habitat. Fisheries Global Information System, FIGIS Species Fact Sheets, FAO-FIGIS. NMFS 127.]. by Kennedy, V. S.\Newell, R. I. E.\Eble, A. F.]. The toxicity of heavy metals to embryos of the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. C. virginica is a benthic, broadcasting bivalve mollusc. Oyster culture. J. Exp. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 8(15):3-183. The potential for created oyster shell reefs as a sustainable shoreline protection strategy in Louisiana. Wissen. Karl SA; Avise JC, 1992. Fox R, 2005. FAO, 1978. Serv. Aquaculture, 56(2):123-138; 17 ref. In: The History, Present Condition, and Future of the Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe. Geomorphology: sheltered drowned river valleys and bar-built lagoonal estuaries (MacKenzie and Wakida-Kusunoki, 1997 in EOBRT, 2007). Cultured Aquatic Species Programme: Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). Cox C; Mann R, 1992. Bahr LM; Lanier WP, 1981. They use chemoreception in their environment and are found to be sessile and encrusting organisms. Small MP; Chapman RW, 1997. Molluscan shellfisheries of the South Atlantic Region of the United States. Wallace RK, 2001. C. virginica inhabit a naturally viable environment, and evidence suggests that past local extirpations and colonizations have been common over geologic time (EOBRT, 2007). C. virginica display a wide range of survival strategies. Here, we were able to detect the negative effects of chronic pesticide exposure on crustaceans. Number 24, March 1991. Online. Seasonal changes in fecundity of oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) from four oyster reefs in the James River, Virginia. Integrated commercial oyster fishery management plan. Molecular genetic analysis of a stepped multilocus cline in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica)., Osborne P, 1999. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 251 pp. Proc. unpaginated. Bivalve filter feeders in estuarine and coastal ecosystems processes. Martin N, 1987. B.]. College Park, Maryland: Maryland Sea Grant. E-Newsletter Archive. In: Molecular Ecology and Evolution: Approaches and Applications [ed. Helgo. Ward JE; Newell RIE; Thompson RJ; Macdonald BA, 1994. U.S. Department of Commerce, unpaginated. Lack of geographic variation in anonymous nuclear polymorphisms in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 36:643-689. Maine Department of Marine Resources. Email subscriber privacy policy MD Sea Grant Publication, 1-18. Berrigan ME, 1990. Behavior of oysters in water of low salinity. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers), Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Competition for space is an important source of mortality. Takacs JU; Frederick JA; Jacobs D, 2007. American oyster. Online at Needler AB, 1932. Biol, 162:213-228. Online. Draft Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Generic Essential Fish Habitat Amendment of the following fishery management plans of the Gulf of Mexico: Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, Red Drum Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, Coral and Coral Reef Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic, Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic. Janet Hanson, Carteret Community College, Morehead City, 3505 Arendell Street, NC 28557, USA, Main AuthorPhilip KempAquaculture Technology Program, Carteret Community College, 3505 Arendell Street, 301 College Circle, Morehead City, NC 28557, USA. Shellfish Assoc, 61:2. It is unknown whether or not the eastern oyster, C. virginica is an invasive species. Stanley JG; Sellers MA, 1986. Biol. Accessed 28 April 2005. College Park: University of Maryland, 200 pp. Accessed 9 April 2005. by Kennedy, V. S.\Newell, R. I. E.\Eble, A. F.]. Genetic Linkage Map of the Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica. Entry for eastern oyster. C. virginica has been a host for transporting other species who have become invasive in their new habitats. by Kennedy VS, Newell RIE, Eble AF]. Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica. College Park, Maryland: Maryland Sea Grant College, University of Maryland, 467-513. Accessed 1 June 2005. [EOBRT, Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Regional Office, February 16, 2007.]. Management of oyster resources in Apalachicola Bay following Hurricane Elena. Its two shells (called "valves," hence the name bivalve) attach together at one end by a natural hinge and by a single large muscle. Fisheries Global Information System, FIGIS Species Fact Sheets, FAO-FIGIS., Oysters tend to clustering on any hard surface that is underwater. Originally written by Lutz G and Harrison W. Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. Animal Diversity Web. Contrib. Eastern Oyster. Reeb CA; Avise JC, 1990. The reefs that oysters form provide important habitat for the Bay’s fish, crabs, worms, and other animals. In: Crassostrea virginica [ed. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, unpaginated. Management for mollusk culture in Mexico. Compendium record. In: Ann. [NATO ASI, No. The shell and ligament. Experimental studies in oyster propagation. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts [ed. In addition to providing habitat to many other species, and attachment substrate for other oysters, oyster reefs serve other important functions. > 0°C, dry winters), Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Hofstetter RP, 1977. Natl. Accessed 16 April 2005. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Biol. Austin, TX: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Coastal Fisheries Branch, 90 pp. Chesapeake Bay Office, unpaginated. Introduced species fact sheets: Crassostrea virginica. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. Their scientific name means, “Thick oyster from Virginia” Eastern Oyster beds form habitat for many other creatures, improve water quality, and reduce bank erosion; features, when combined with their high relative population, that characterize them as a foundation species Accessed 6 May 2005. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts [ed. Accessed 14 May 2005. The effect of temperature on the mechanical activity of the gills of the oyster (Ostrea virginica Gm.). Mar. Developing model systems for molecular biogeography: vicariance and interchange in marine invertebrates. According to Cherry Point environmental specialists, the eastern oyster, scientific name Crassostrea virginica, once thrived along the Neuse River near … Growth of oysters, Ostrea virginica, during difficult months. Status review of Crassostrea virginica. Hawaiian Marine Shells. Fish, 7:285-294. Rome, Italy: FAO. In: Management for mollusk culture in Mexico, Cerrada de Trini 10, San Jeronimo-Lidice, CP-10200 Mexico DF, Mexico: Secretaria de Pesca, Direction general de Acuacultura. Oystering from New York to Boston. unpaginated. It’s hard for many people to appreciate how important and plentiful eastern oysters were 100 years ago. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species. Rep, 82(11.64):25 pp. Mann R; Southworth M; Harding JM; Wesson J, 2004. Gloucester Pt, VA: VIMS Press, 329-358. Difficult to distinguish from the eastern oyster without opening the shells. Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS), National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Modification of natural benthic communities, Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing), Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked). Bimbo. C. virginica is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. Biol. Sex reversal in Ostrea virginica. Many, but not all oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea. Science, 113:719-721. Temporal and spatial changes in fecundity of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) in the James River, Virginia. Species information Oyster Crassostrea virginica. Proceedings of the National Shellfish Association, 59:6-7. Some aspects of behavior of oysters at different temperatures. Entry for eastern oyster habitat. Oyster reefs are one of the most ecologically and economically valuable habitats within estuaries. Cultured Aquatic Species Programme: Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). Indians dined on them regularly. unpaginated. Why would you put this you just repeating the question. Schiller ZA; Romano C; Roberts SB, 2006. Aust. Fukui North America, 2004. Breitburg DL; Coen LD; Luckenbach MW; Posey M; Wesson JA, 2000. by Kennedy, V. S.\Newell, R. I. E.\Eble, A. F.]. Jenkins JB; Morrison A; MacKenzie CLJr, 1997. Calabrese A; Collier R; Nelson D; MacInnes R, 1973. Alexandratos N, 1995. Accessed 27 April 2005. Oyster meats, which are somewhat fatty, should be smooth with adequate liquor (store cup-side down to retain the liquor). Online. J. Gen. Physiol, 11:145-431. Inside the shell, the crested oyster has the small lateral ridges that are absent in the eastern oyster, and its muscle scars are colorless (purple in the eastern oyster). Kay EA, 1979. unpaginated. Accessed 14 March 2005. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), 0.00mg/L is preferred, adult Crassostrea virginica have a median ammonia tolerance limit (96-h TLm) of 0.082, 0.6-2.0 (Canadian waters), 0.6-5.0 (mid-Atlantic waters), 8.0 (Chesapeake Bay), 0-0.4 (Gulf of Mexico), <2.4mg/l is harmful, can tolerate anerobic conditions after spawning for 3 days, 7 required for spawning, 16-30 needed for embryo development, 3-31 needed for larval development, >12 optimum growth, 0-40 tolerated, 6.8-8.8 = embryo development, <6.8 and >9.0 = abnormal development, 8.2-8.5 = optimum growth occurs, Prefer clear water but will survive high turbidity for short periods of time, Eastern Oyster Biological Review Team Report, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Scaling and wavelet-based analysis of the long-term heart rate variability of Crassostrea virginica. College Park, USA: Maryland Sea Grant College. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Online. No. Kennedy VS, Newell RIE, Eble AF, 1996. In: The History, Present Condition, and Future of the Molluscan Fisheries of North and Central America and Europe, Vol. Cooperative Gulf of Mexico Estuarine Inventory Study - Texas: Area Description. Influence of selective breeding, geographic origin, and disease on gametogenesis and sex ratios of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, exposed to the parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX). Development of eel culture systems: towards a sustainable eel aquaculture. MacKenzie CL, 1996. Chapter 1. Britton JC; Morton B, 1989. [Fishery Management Plan Series Number 1. Crassostrea virginica. Flaak AR; Epifanio CE, 1978. VI. Read more. This plays a role in the continuing availability of new oyster seed. Journal of Shellfish Research, 19(1):371-377. Aquaculture, 88(3-4):285-301. This French word is in turn derived from the Latin word ‘ostrea’. A comparison of dredges and patent tongs for estimation of oyster populations. Science, 256:100-102. South Carolina Oyster Restoration and Enhancement (SCORE). Biological and economic assessment of an oyster resource development project in Apalachicola Bay, Florida. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Loosanoff VL, 1953. III. A preliminary study on growth of Crassostrea gigas larvae and spat in relation to dietary protein. [NOAA Technical Report NMFS. See how oysters can help humans monitor water quality by serving as “canaries in the coal mine." Marine Biological Laboratory. Shumway SE, 1996. Carlton JT; Mann R, 1996. unpaginated. Accessed 6 May 2005. Spawning and egg production of oysters and clams. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53(3):673-684. by Kennedy, V. S.\Newell, R. I. E.\Eble, A. F.]. Charleston, SC: South Atlantic Fishery Management Counsel, unpaginated., NOAA, 2007. Journal of Shellfish Research, 7(2):281-288. FIGIS, 2005. Marine Biology, 145:351-359. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. In: Fisheries Global Information System, FIGIS Species Fact Sheets, FAO-FIGIS, unpaginated. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Calories, carbs, fat, protein, fiber, cholesterol, and more for Eastern oyster (Mollusks, canned).